124–5, citing Petitfils (2003). [148][O], In the 1780s, prison reform became a popular topic for French writers and the Bastille was increasingly critiqued as a symbol of arbitrary despotism. The prison contained just seven inmates at the time of its storming but was a symbol of abuses by the monarchy; itsfall was the flashpoint of the French Revolution. Linguet noted that "there are tables less lacking; I confess it; mine was among them." "175: La Bastille vue par un artiste", in Dutray-Lecoin and Muzerelle (eds) (2010). It was the day of the common man being in charge. [137], Although potentially dangerous objects and money were confiscated and stored when a prisoner first entered the Bastille, most wealthy prisoners continued to bring in additional luxuries, including pet dogs or cats to control the local vermin. [93] Bazinière was named after Bertrand de La Bazinière, a royal treasurer who was imprisoned there in 1663. The anniversary of the event is still celebrated as Bastille … Who fired the first shots? [49][E] The first surviving documentary records of prisoners at the Bastille also date from this period. He was marched through Paris and then murdered, his head being displayed on a pike. [69], By Louis's reign, Bastille prisoners were detained using a "lettre de cachet", "a letter under royal seal", issued by the king and countersigned by a minister, ordering a named person to be held. 14–5, 26. D. Louis XVI's cowardice act. [9] Built to the same height, the roofs of the towers and the tops of the walls formed a broad, crenellated walkway all the way around the fortress. Funck-Brentano, p. 72; Dutray-Lecoin (2010a), p. 136. A typical criticism of the rooms was that they were shabby and basic rather than uncomfortable. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. The King, although encouraged by his confidants to leave for a border area and hopefully more loyal troops, conceded and pulled his forces away from Paris and began to accept the revolution. Schama, pp. One trend was a decline in the number of prisoners sent to the Bastille, with 1,194 imprisoned there during the reign of Louis XV and only 306 under Louis XVI up until the Revolution, annual averages of around 23 and 20 respectively. [67] In 1685 Louis revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had previously granted various rights to French Protestants; the subsequent royal crackdown was driven by the king's strongly anti-Protestant views. Chevallier, pp. [7] Charles instructed Hugh Aubriot, the new provost, to build a much larger fortification on the same site as Marcel's bastille. The medieval fortress, armory, and political prison in Paris known as the Bastille represented royal authority in the center of Paris. [187] Consequently, the late governor, de Launay, was rapidly vilified as a brutal despot. From 1659 onwards, the Bastille functioned primarily as a state penitentiary; by 1789, 5,279 prisoners had passed through its gates. [32] The Arsenal, a large military-industrial complex tasked with the production of cannons and other weapons for the royal armies, was established to the south of the Bastille by Francis I, and substantially expanded under Charles IX. [92] The origins of the name of Comté tower are unclear; one theory is that the name refers to the County of Paris. [238] The matter was reexamined by Jacques Godechot in the post-war years; Godechot showing convincingly that, in addition to some local artisans and traders, at least half the crowd that gathered that day were, like the inhabitants of the surrounding faubourg, recent immigrants to Paris from the provinces. Jane McLeod suggests that the breaching of censorship rules by licensed printers was rarely dealt with by regular courts, being seen as an infraction against the Crown, and dealt with by royal officials. [179] By now around 83 of the crowd had been killed and another 15 mortally wounded; only one of the Invalides had been killed in return. In 1889 the continued popularity of the Bastille with the public was illustrated by the decision to build a replica in stone and wood for the Exposition Universelle world fair in Paris, manned by actors in period costumes. [90] The ditch around the Bastille, now largely dry, supported a 36-foot (11 m) high stone wall with a wooden walkway for the use of the guards, known as "la ronde", or the round. Lüsebrink, Hans-Jürgen (2010). [188] The fortress itself was described by the revolutionary press as a "place of slavery and horror", containing "machines of death", "grim underground dungeons" and "disgusting caves" where prisoners were left to rot for up to 50 years. [164][R] Similarly, Puget, the Bastille's lieutenant de roi, submitted reports in 1788 suggesting that the authorities close the prison, demolish the fortress and sell the real estate off. Schama, p. 332; Linguet, p .69; Coeuret, p. 54-5. [200] A memorabilia industry surrounding the fall of the Bastille was already flourishing and as the work on the demolition project finally dried up, Palloy started producing and selling memorabilia of the Bastille. [243], This article is about the building in Paris. Alexandre Dumas, for example, used the Bastille and the legend of the "Man in the Iron Mask" extensively in his d'Artagnan Romances; in these novels the Bastille is presented as both picturesque and tragic, a suitable setting for heroic action. [139] Servants could sometimes accompany their masters into the Bastille, as in the cases of the 1746 detention of the family of Lord Morton and their entire household as British spies: the family's domestic life continued on inside the prison relatively normally. [16] The Bastille's design was highly innovative: it rejected both the 13th-century tradition of more weakly fortified quadrangular castles, and the contemporary fashion set at Vincennes, where tall towers were positioned around a lower wall, overlooked by an even taller keep in the centre. [152] Linguet criticised the physical conditions in which he was kept, sometimes inaccurately, but went further in capturing in detail the more psychological effects of the prison regime upon the inmate. Morellet reported that each day he received "a bottle of decent wine, an excellent one-pound loaf of bread; for dinner, a soup, some beef, an entrée and a desert; in the evening, some roast and a salad." [90] La Chapelle contained the Bastille's chapel, decorated with a painting of Saint Peter in chains. [146] More criticism followed in 1719 when the Abbé Jean de Bucquoy, who had escaped from the Bastille ten years previously, published an account of his adventures from the safety of Hanover; he gave a similar account to Renneville's and termed the Bastille the "hell of the living". 120–1. Funck-Brentano, p. 107; Chevallier, p. 152. [225] The key to the Bastille was given to George Washington in 1790 by Lafayette and is displayed in the historic house of Mount Vernon. "L'embastillement dans les mémoires des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles", in Dutray-Lecoin and Muzerelle (eds) (2010). 133–5 and Coueret, p. 20. After a day's fighting had occurred across the capital, Henry III fled and the Bastille surrendered to Henry, the Duke of Guise and leader of the Catholic League, who appointed Bussy-Leclerc as his new captain. [230] As living memories of the Revolution faded, the destruction of the Bastille meant that later historians had to rely primarily on memoires and documentary materials in analysing the fortress and the 5,279 prisoners who had come through the Bastille between 1659 and 1789. [165] In June 1789, the Académie royale d'architecture proposed a similar scheme to Brogniard's, in which the Bastille would be transformed into an open public area, with a tall column at the centre surrounded by fountains, dedicated to Louis XVI as the "restorer of public freedom". What did Bastille symbolise as? Did the events leading up to the storming of the Bastille persuade the French citizens to believe that it was a symbol of … The Bastille had become a relic of a previous age; indeed, documents from the royal court shortly before the revolution reveal plans had already been developed to knock the Bastille down and replace it with public works, including a monument to Louis XVI and freedom. Daileader, Philip and Philip Whalen (eds) (2010). This was open to the public and lined with small shops rented out by the governor for almost 10,000 livres a year, complete with a lodge for the Bastille gatekeeper; it was illuminated at night to light the adjacent street. [88], Structurally, the late-18th century Bastille was not greatly changed from its 14th-century predecessor. The Bastille (/bæˈstiːl/, French: [bastij] (listen)) was a fortress in Paris, known formally as the Bastille Saint-Antoine. [232] After being safely stored and ignored for many years, these archives were rediscovered by the French historian François Ravaisson, who catalogued and used them for research between 1866 and 1904. [103] During the excavations for the Métro underground train system in 1899, the foundations of the Liberté Tower were uncovered and moved to the corner of the Boulevard Henri IV and the Quai de Celestins, where they can still be seen today. 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